I Can’t Forget the 1863 Howard County Christmas

Each Christmas for more than 20 years now, I have been fortunate to celebrate it as a mother. Once my son graduated from Hammond High, he spent time away while at the University of Maryland but returned home for the holidays to celebrate. A recent “Facebook memory” appeared in my account that contained the photo of him when he was about 10 with his HC Parks & Rec trophy for tennis, and my immediate thought was that even now, I still see “my baby” in him. I’m sure I’m not in the minority when I write that there’s very little I won’t do for my son. This Christmas was a little different for me, in more ways than just COVID-19 related. Due to the work our group is doing, I ran across a story that weighed on my mind this Christmas. It’s a story from many Christmases ago in Howard County, and it involves a woman and mother named Caroline. 

Caroline and her husband Joseph were living in district 3 of Howard County in 1860. She was 38 years old, and had 4 kids living at home with her and her husband. Joseph, John, Susan, and Kate were their names. Joseph was the oldest at 11, and Kate was the youngest at 2. They were a free Black family.

United States Census, 1860, courtesy, FamilySearch.org

Maryland apprenticeship laws from 1819 were still in place that permitted the children of free negroes to be bound out as apprentices by the local Orphan’s Court if anyone reported their suspicion that they believed a negro child was “not at service or learning a trade, or employed in the service of their parents”. If bound out as an apprentice that way, the master or mistress could be required to teach the child to read or write, or give the child money at the end of their indenture period for what was called “freedom dues”. On April 6,1861, Joseph and Caroline struck their own deal with Francis McAvoy for the service of their son Joseph for $100 paid up front to them. They agreed that Joseph would work for Mr. McAvoy until he turned 25.

Document in the custody of Howard County Historical Society, available at https://collections.digitalmaryland.org/digital/collection/hcbh/id/632

This was before the start of the Civil War (April 12, 1861), but after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated President (March 4, 1861). Howard County voters weren’t keen on Lincoln or his ideals, having cast only ONE vote for him in the election. 

I will never know for certain all that Caroline Anderson personally did in response to the Civil War, states seceding from the Union, and the Compensated Emancipation Act that took effect in neighboring DC in 1862 (but not in Maryland). What I do know is that she was sitting in jail Christmas 1863, having been indicted on charges of enticing the apprentices of George Ellicott to run away from him. ELLICOTT… a name that is usually globally associated with the Quaker faith and antislavery. George had been noted to be an enslaver in 1850.

United States Census (Slave Schedule), 1850 courtesy, FamilySearch.org

 

He wasn’t the only Ellicott who was an enslaver, since Andrew Ellicott, Jr also indulged in enslavement. Here, he set 43 year old Jacob Madden free, for the price of $200.

Document in the custody of the Howard County Historical Society, available for viewing at https://collections.digitalmaryland.org/digital/collection/hcbh/id/173


In the years to come, I hope that the work that our group does helps to tear down global assumptions made about people that society of the past has uplifted as well as those that haven’t enjoyed the privilege of being exalted. Society can benefit by having more people who take time to consider and realize the individual stories and circumstances of people (past, present and in the future) before judging them. George very likely knew Francis McAvoy, because it appears that they both attended St. Paul Catholic Church in Ellicott City. McAvoy was baptized there, and a George Ellicott appeared on the registry (likely the father, George II, since his son was only an infant child’s that time). 

http://genealogytrails.com/mary/howard/sotf.html

Was it the father or the son who was associated with the case involving Caroline who was sitting in jail on Christmas? George Sr. had been enslaving two young girls, ages 12 and 15 in 1850, according to the census image above.

60 years old by the 1860 census, George Sr. lived with his family and 12 year old son George, as well as 2 mulatto “servant” children (George Dyson, 10, and Laura Dyson, 12) in district 2 of the county. So, it wasn’t the younger George Ellicott associated with legal proceedings against Caroline. It isn’t known if the 2 servant children were the ones who Caroline allegedly enticed to run away from George.

United States Census, 1860, courtesy, FamilySearch.org

Caroline got released on what is now referred to as bail in the amount of $100 the day after Christmas. Joshua B. Davis posted the security for her appearance, and the State’s Attorney agreed to her release.

Here is the cover of the VERY old book I found Caroline and others in, down at the Maryland State Archives in Annapolis this past September.

courtesy of the Maryland State Archives, 20,367-28

I don’t know (yet, thanks to COVID-19 closing things again) what happened in her case when she went back to court in March 1864 as the Civil War still continued. I only know that her son John (16) and daughter Susan (18) were listed as living with George Ellicott Jr (then 22 with a wife and son they named George) in Montgomery County in 1870 when the war had been over years ago. I can only imagine why, and I hope it wasn’t a punishment of some sort for Caroline.

 

I think it’s quite natural to encounter stories like this and ponder about what you’d do if it were you. The reader can probably accurately guess whether this author would have been like Caroline, in jail on Christmas of 1863. I raised my glass this holiday and toasted to finding this part of her story, and to the year ahead working with and in the community to unveil more.

NOTE: Caroline’s children weren’t the only ones to face Orphan’s Court proceedings regarding being bound out to another family. As an example, the Howard County sheriff was told to summon Rachel Ann Bell to the Orphan’s Court in order to testify as to why she shouldn’t be bound out as an apprentice to John Forsyth. The date was November 1, 1864, and Rachel Ann was listed to be the “former slave” of Forsyth’s.

courtesy, Maryland State Archives, Howard County, Register of Wills, Misc Papers, T1302-1 box 35

The sheriff was told to do the same to Edward P. Butler, also listed as a “former slave”. November 1st was the day that Maryland’s new state constitution banning slavery went into effect.

courtesy, Maryland State Archives, Howard County, Register of Wills, Misc Papers, T1302-1 box 35

Rachel was only 16 years old when the Orphan’s Court summoned her to come. Richard was only 7. This is known because of the information Forsyth gave to Howard County’s Commissioner when he placed his name on the list of those wishing to be compensated for the loss of those they had enslaved being freed. (See the image on page 45)

https://hocoltr.org/enslavers/

The very old box of papers I was fishing around in last year, that led me to Caroline’s and other stories.

Marlena Jareaux

Compensation Given For Howard County, MD Slaves

The question has come up: “Were any Howard County Maryland enslavers compensated for claims made to the government for money after the effects of Emancipation?” The question gets posed when some look at the list of enslavers who placed their names on a list in 1867 that was designed to express their interest in being compensated for the “loss” of the value of those they had held in captivity/enslavement who were liberated. That list is on our website HERE

After hearing from one person who shall remain nameless that they had been told by a person of authority that the answer was “no”, I decided to do a little dig to put it to the test. I already knew the story of a Dorsey that I’d been tracking for a novel in progress, so I knew where to look. The following story involves Mary Moxley, James Walters, George D. Walters, Caroline V. Walters and the Bell children who had been enslaved by them all..


Mary Moxley appeared on the 1840 census, living in Division 3 of Anne Arundel county (was prior to Howard being a separate county). The census taker noted 2 white females between the ages of 60 and 70 in her household, and Mary was one of them. A few years later on June 11, 1846, Mary created her last Will and testament. Mary couldn’t read nor write, so she placed her “X” upon the record you see below. She bequeathed various enslaved persons to her family members as follows:

To her niece Harriett L. Walters: “one negro boy Tom and one negro woman named Lid”

To William G. Walters, son of James Walters, Jr: “a negro boy Henson”

To Caroline V. Walters: “a negro girl named Juay”

To George D. Walters: “a negro girl named Caroline”

 

courtesy, FamilySearch.org “Maryland Register of Wills Records, 1629-1999,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-9TY2-S5H?cc=1803986&wc=SNY4-4WB%3A146534701%2C146767001 : 20 May 2014), Howard > Wills 1840-1862 vol 1 > image 1 of 273; Hall of Records, Annapolis.

There are many people who are of the mistaken belief that only men enslaved persons. That’s simply untrue, and Mary was just one example of many. The 1850 slave schedule for Maryland that has the name “Harriett Walters” contains the details regarding the 27 people she enslaved. James enslaved 6.

 

 

courtesy, FamilySearch.org

courtesy, FamilySearch.org


The observant reader will notice that there aren’t any last names written for the enslaved people listed in Mary’s will. This was an interesting phenomenon that isn’t discussed enough regarding slavery of this time period. You’ll see that first and last names were noted for her heirs. Did Mary not know the last names of those she enslaved, or did it make it easier to treat them as property to give to her heirs if she didn’t think of them as humans in family units such as her own? The slave schedule entries of 1850 above does the same: depersonalized humans by referring to them only by features used to assign monetary value to them (age, sex and perception of skin color).

So, how is it known that there were enslaved children with the last name “Bell” being enslaved by the Walters family?

For that, another database was consulted. Within the website CivilWarDC.org lies documentation in the form of petitions that were made by Caroline Walters, James Walters, and James on behalf of George D. Walters. Each were making claims for their perceived losses due to the emancipation of those they had enslaved.

Jesse Maria Bell was said to be 18 years old as of 1862. That would have made her about 2 years old when Mary Moxley gave Jesse to Caroline in 1846. Caroline went on to state that Jesse was an “excellent house servant, chamber maid waiter or nurse” and “I am not aware of any bodily or mental defect to detract from her full value as a healthy, trusty, and faithful servant.”

 

 

 

http://civilwardc.org/texts/petitions/cww.00081.html

Next is George. George was the son of James Walters. That is known because of the affidavit filed with the petition made on George’s behalf by his father, in which George is referred to as his “infant” son (which means, underage). George was 17 years old when the petition for compensation got filed by his father in 1862. That would have made him about one year old when Mary Moxley gave him a slave.

The claim for compensation was for the loss of the services of Caroline Bell. Written on the claim was “The said negro woman was born at the residence of the affiant, and he has known her ever since.” Also, “He does not know a more valuable woman..”

 

http://civilwardc.org/texts/petitions/cww.00079.html

The thing about Caroline Bell is that she was listed by James to have been almost 17 years old. “Almost” means she was 16. That means that baby George was given a baby girl, Caroline, when Mary made out her will 16 years prior in 1846. It is interesting to see Mr Walters consider his 17 year old son to be a minor, yet 16 year old Caroline to be a “negro woman”.

Ancestry.com. Washington, D.C., U.S., Slave Owner Petitions, 1862-1863[database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2010. This collection was indexed by Ancestry World Archives Project contributors.
Original data:Records of the Board of Commissioners for the Emancipation of Slaves in the District of Columbia, 1862–1863. NARA Microfilm Publication M520, 6 rolls. Records of the United States General Accounting, Record Group 217. National Archives, Washington, D.C

 

James also did a claim of his own. In his claim, one gets to see how the enslaved were sometimes lent to other family members (in this case) in another state (DC). This of course was in addition to them being essentially “leased out” by enslavers to others who may not have wanted to have the tax payment that came with owning property. (Yes, enslavers were taxed by the county for their enslaved). James reported having received Margaret from his father (also named James Walters) in 1828. Since she was reported to have been 56 in 1862, that means she was born near 1806 and was 22 when he received her. Alexander and Maria were children of Margaret’s, both whom James considered to be “slaves for life”. All of them were living in DC with James Walters, Sr, with his son’s consent. Margaret was reported to be “No. 1 cook, washer, and ironer”, Alexander “good looking”, and Maria was married.

 

http://civilwardc.org/texts/petitions/cww.00080.html

This 1862 financial claim regarding Margaret is likely one of the first documents acknowledging her existence. No other prior records could be found mentioning her. It is unclear who (if anyone) was paying the tax associated with enslaving her. In 1850, she’d have been 44 and no line contains a person of that age on the listing for James above. His father in DC also didn’t report anyone with that age to authorities.

The same can be said for 1860. The Howard County James Walters reported no one 54 years old, nor did his father in DC.

courtesy, FamilySearch.org

courtesy, FamilySearch.org

As for Caroline Bell, perhaps the DC James reported her age wrong (above, he reported an 11 and an 18 year old female in 1860) and he was the one paying the tax.

As for the compensation part, all claimed their enslaved to have high dollar values. That is known because of the report that contains the following info regarding those claims:

 

  1. Caroline Walters placed a value on Jesse Bell at $800.
  2. James Walters collectively valued Margaret, Alexander and Maria at $2200.
  3. James Walters, on behalf of his son, valued Caroline Bell at $800.

The final valuations were:

  • Caroline Walters’ claim for Jesse Bell was ultimately valued at $459.90
  • James Walters had his claim valued at $109.30+(what looks like $613.20)+481.80= 1204.30
  • James on behalf of George was $481.80 for Caroline Bell.

Courtesy, FamilySearch.org “District of Columbia Court and Emancipation Records, 1820-1863,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CS9H-CCVH?cc=2515818&wc=79PD-44D%3A1591892317%2C1591892315 : 10 February 2017), Roll 1, Minutes, lists of petitions and awards, and final report 1862-1863 > Records of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia relating to Slaves, 1862-1863, M520 > image 223 of 669; citing NARA microfilm publication M520, M433, and M434 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).

Nearly one million dollars was paid out to enslavers who filed claims under the DC Compensated Emancipation Act. I’ve read that there were more than 930 petitions filed and approved for enslavers who received pay. The legislation provided that an enslaver would receive “up to $300” for each freed person. Receiving a document showing they had been freed by their enslaver, was a requirement. More on that program can be found HERE

Caroline didn’t show up for the hearing on Thursday October 3, 1862, but James Walters did and he brought along a “Maria Bell”. James was examined about his loyalty to the Union, and Maria was asked about Caroline’s health, etc. The person responsible for the valuation of Caroline and others for the Commissioners was the notorious enslaver, Bernard M. Campbell. Campbell had been responsible for placing a dollar value on many enslaved who had been on auction blocks in Baltimore City as well as those sold to him by estate administrators and others for transportation and enslavement to the Lower South. He would have known the game.

 

“District of Columbia Court and Emancipation Records, 1820-1863,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CS9H-CCXP?cc=2515818&wc=79PD-44D%3A1591892317%2C1591892315 : 10 February 2017), Roll 1, Minutes, lists of petitions and awards, and final report 1862-1863 > Records of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia relating to Slaves, 1862-1863, M520 > image 162 of 669; citing NARA microfilm publication M520, M433, and M434 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).


Here is the page showing the payment received by the Walters family. James acknowledged receiving payment for all of their claims.

“District of Columbia Court and Emancipation Records, 1820-1863,” images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:3Q9M-CS9H-C4CK?cc=2515818&wc=79PD-44D%3A1591892317%2C1591892315 : 10 February 2017), Roll 1, Minutes, lists of petitions and awards, and final report 1862-1863 > Records of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia relating to Slaves, 1862-1863, M520 > image 477 of 669; citing NARA microfilm publication M520, M433, and M434 (Washington D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).



Did Caroline find her way back to Howard County after the proceedings in DC? YES she did! First, it’s important to show the following…

James Walters placed these names on his Maryland list for purposes of trying to get compensated in 1867. That full list in on this website under “The Enslavers” tab. While the relationship between Lydia Bell (33), Mary Bell (3), Benjamin Bell (9) and Hannah Bell (11) to Caroline isn’t known with certainty, she must have had ties to them that caused her to return.

Image taken from file supplied courtesy of the Maryland State Archives


Caroline Bell’s story has been an absolute pleasure to research and create. Before I get to her coming back to Howard County, something needs to be restated. There was another purpose for showcasing her story here.

James Walters is the person who agreed to release Nicholas Snowden from his enslavement in order to fight in the Civil War as a substitute for someone who didn’t want to. Mr. Walters was to get financially compensated for having agreed to release Nicholas from enslavement in order to enlist. Nicholas’ name doesn’t appear on the 1867 list above, because he had been freed to fight as a member of the USColored Troops before it was created. Here is Nicholas’ paperwork:

Courtesy, Howard County Historical Society. Can also be accessed via https://collections.digitalmaryland.org/digital/collection/hcbh/id/606/rec/1

I postulate that it’s entirely possible that Caroline Bell knew Nicholas Snowden. George resided with his father. He was listed as continuing to reside with him on the 1860 census, where he is listed to be 15. It would all depend upon exactly when Nicholas started living there, and how much time it overlapped with Caroline also being there before going to DC.

courtesy, FamilySearch.org


Finally, there’s Caroline Bell’s return to Howard County.

In 1870, she was reported as being the 25 year old cook for the Ellicott City household of the Howard County Register of Wills, Benjamin Dorsey.

courtesy, FamilySearch.org

The stories she could have told about things seen and heard in that household! Did you catch the nearby household in the census image above?? A cook of a similar age to Caroline, whose name was Susan Jackson, worked for James E. VanSant. VanSant was listed as a “merchant” in 1870, but that would soon change. He was the Mayor of Ellicott City for a term, but lost his bid for re-election in 1875. He then became Ellicott City’s chief of police chief in 1877. The stories Susan could have told! More on VanSant when we look at the Jacob Henson, Jr case, since he factors into it.

https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn83016368/1875-04-17/ed-1/seq-3/

Across the County in District 5, Benjamin Bell, reported by James Walters on his 1867 claim form to have been his 9 year old “slave for life”, was living with Waters and his family in 1870 as a farm laborer…right alongside of George D. Walters who used to enslave Caroline.

Wish I could have interviewed them all.

 

courtesy FamilySearch.org


Final Note: There were other Howard Countians who did the same as James Walters did. It was an indication of people who were made to work in DC. Andrew Mercer and John A. Dorsey (prior Orphan’s Court judge) were two easily-recognized names for me due to my interest in them both for another project. Links to records for them both are below.

Andrew Mercer of R’s records can be found HERE

 

no award given, because he failed to produce the guy for them to see.


John A Dorsey’s records can be found HERE His petition was marked “after time” (late). He was trying to get paid for two runaways (Nelson and Luther) who had left a year or so before, who he believed to be in DC. Both had been inheritances from he and his wife’s parents.

 

For more on Vansant, check out the police department museum’s website where you’ll also see his photo. That is HERE

Marlena Jareaux